Cardboard - coarse paper base material. Since there is no clear border between the paper and cardboard, Cardboard is generally greater thickness (usually over 0,25 mm) than paper. According to ISO, board - a paper with a minimum density over 224 g/m2, but there are exceptions. Cardboard can thigh relationships ABO bagatosharovim. Cardboard, used for boxes, folders and hard, Cardboard boxes called (QC). Also produced for thin cardboard corrugated. It is easy to cut and bend, it is lightweight and is often used in packaging. Another category includes cardboard for printing, is used for wrapping magazines and postcards.
B 1817r., England began the first production board. Pakuvalny (Korobkova) Cardboard vpershe poyavivsya priblizno at 1860h pp. letters and was stored in a space-saving kits. 1879 year was marked by the development of cutting leaves and coverages. 1911 was built first factory for the production of kraft paper in Florida (U.S.), in 1915 patented cardboard packaging for liquids, and 1935 р. first dairy factory was used. Heat-resistant cardboard was presented in 1974 р.p
Vegetable fiber materials (Pulp) processed into chips and vybilyuyetsya, then can be used for production of one or several layers of cardboard, which if necessary can be covered for, to have an improved surface appearance and estetychnishyy. Cardboard is produced on paper machines, which provide high density and The multiple.
The above fibrous material can be of two types: primary (Pulp, Village trіska) and secondary (wastepaper). For 90% total production of paper pulp is wood raw material. Today sphere packing, especially raw foods Listings, raise attention, as manufacturers, dealing with environmental issues, seeking resources, which can be upgraded to increase demand for their products. Now in production of paper packages is required to use all or part of secondary raw materials processed.
• Hard of trees: 0.05 inches (1,3 mm) long: birch, which has short fibers. In general it is difficult to handle, but it gives great firmness. Although the solid rock and have such length and fiber strength as soft rock, they are used for product approval. Solid fiber fill better letter and thereby provide a smooth surface, less svitlopronyknist, which gives good properties for printing.
• Soft tree species: 0.13 inches (3,3 mm). Pine i Yalin, that are inherent in long fiber.
• recycled fiber: recycled material collected and sorted, also used for mixing with primary materials. It is important, as recycled cardboard loses its reinforcing properties knitting. Mixed waste paper is often cleaned from ink and paint, so, as a result, Cardboard strips can have ink particles and adhesives (Scotch) and other residues, which in combination give the gray. Products, made from waste paper, mostly have less predictable content and functionality as the worst, than cardboard or paper pulp. Besides, there were health risks from using recycled products for food packaging. Swiss study showed, Some recycled materials may contain mineral oil, which can move in packaged food. (levels of mineral oil to 19.4 mg / kg was found in rice, packed in recycled cardboard).
• Other types of raw materials: takozh possible vikoristovuvati volokna Solomon, Hemp, Cotton, flax and other plants.
Production of cellulose
There 2 main ways of getting cellulose fibers:
• Key-way - is a two-phasic process, resulting in high production of the material obtained.
• The chemical approach involves the use of chemical transformation of wood into pulp, with the level of production 30% below, than in the case of machining.
Natural cellulose color - brown, because it is the lignin content. Cardboard can be recycled ink stains, compounds and other residues, that make the color gray surface. Bleaching is commonly used for special packages and printed surfaces. There are different ways of whitening, used according to a number of factors, eg, degree of color change, chemicals, to be used, etc.. There are three ways to whiten:
• Bleaching with chlorine gas - a method, which was largely replaced by more environmentally friendly using oskyhenu.
• Bleaching chemicals by oxidation, such as chlorine dioxin, hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite.
• Bleaching by reducing the use of such chemicals as sodium bisulfate.
Pasteboard typically has a higher level of flexibility and making, than single layer by layering different layers of cardboard in one article. In the case of one and of the same material for all layers, each of them separately processed and formed to achieve high quality.
Kreyduvannya used to improve the whiteness, Smoothness and glare surface. Most coated paper is made of:
• Pigment, who treated Chinese porcelain, calcium carbonate, dioxin Titanium.
• Stick or bookbinding substance as butadiene-styrene or starch with water
Additional components can be optical brightening agents.
Depending on the manufacturing process and raw material sources, produced various types of cardboard. The main international abbreviation:
• FBB/GC/UC (Cardboard Korobkova Pulp) - Map, produced from primary fibers from middle-mechanical pulp (CTMP), material that gives light yellow tint.
• SBB / SBS (Solid bleached board) - Pulp and paperboard, on 100% made from bleached pulp, through which bleached.
• SUB / SUS (nevidbilenyy cardboard) - Made from bleached chemical pulp nets and paper.
• WLC. (Thin ball gofrokatonu) - Map, made from pulp and paper.
Base weight (US) - Weight 500 leaves, which is measured in pounds.
Underwear: Underwear - Technical definition, which indicates the number of blue-white light, which vidbavyye paper. This property is very subjective and individual to each customer and such products as better food packed in a yellow shade of white, than blue.
Density / gram round: Density board determined according to ISO 536. Displays weight per unit area measured and g/m2.
PH: Surface pH measured in water extracts and corresponding scale 0-14, de 0 - Acid, 7 - Neutral, 14 - Lug.
Stiffness: Stiffness is one of the most important properties of paperboard and paperboard affects opportunities to move smoothly machine, that it raises, fills and closes. Stiffness also provides strength and reduces the tendency to sag under the cardboard weight such as bulk grain. Other factors, determining stiffness include cardboard thickness, coated, density.
Smooth: Smoothness is especially important in matters of Print. What smoother paper, responsibility of those denser ink on cardboard. Determined by action of air flow on the board - the higher the rate of air flow mounted on cardboard cylindrical knife under certain pressure, so rigid cardboard surface.
Gauge / Thickness: In the U.S. caliber is usually expressed in thousandths of inches destinies (0.001”) or at points, de list tovschinoyu 0.024 becomes 24 point. In Europe, measured as g/m2. Cardboard often differ in thickness, rather than the density of.
Underwear: Demands, that all colors were equally present on the canvas, because real white sheet equally reflects all the light palette.
Cardboard sector deals mainly in conjunction with the paper industry. Capacity Market cardboard and paper in 2007 totaled 630.0 billion. USD in volume 320,3 млн. m-tone. 40.1% this market is Europe. About 50% total produced goes to paper packaging, then the paper for printing and writing. Cardboard box takes a third of all paper and cardboard packages, that 15% packages in general. Slightly more than half Europe is made from cardboard renewable cellulose or paper (54%) картону Європи виробляється із відновлювальної целюлози або макулатури. Paper and cardboard industry is quite energy- and capital-. Line with production capacity of coated paperboard 400 kilotons per year is about 60 млн. EUR.million